Advanced microwave impedance microscopy for emerging materials and devices

Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) is a powerful scanning probe technique that allows non-contact characterization of local complex permittivity or electric potential at GHz frequencies with minimal sample preparation. Here we present a series of recent advancements in MIM, including drift-free thermally-limited operation, zF sensitivity, continuous-frequency spectroscopy, and photoconductivity nano-interferometry. These innovations significantly broaden the scope of MIM, providing new capabilities for the characterization of electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices.