An Effective Surface Impedance Concept to Model Arbitrary Roughness Profiles on Printed Circuit Boards up to 110 GHz

This paper presents a method to determine the complex surface impedance of rough conductors utilizing the main idea of the Gradient Model. By introducing a frequency dependent, effective quadratic surface roughness parameter real conductivity profiles can be described without simplified approximations. This concept delivers highly accurate simulation models, which is proven for additive and subtractive manufactured microstrip lines up to 110 GHz.