This workshop presents the similarities and differences between wireless and wireline/optical communication along with circuit design innovations that enable the next generation of these systems. There are undeniable similarities between the systems and electronic building blocks in wireline/optical and wireless transceivers. In this event, first commonalities and differences of wireline/optical system versus an advanced wireless link will be discussed, next advanced modulation schemes to close the gap with Shannon limit in wireline links will be reviewed. Next, advanced circuit design techniques for wireless and optical transmitters, which is power amplifiers and modulator drivers will be presented. The last talk covers the optical and wireless receiver front-ends where novel circuit design techniques for low-noise, low-power LNAs and TIAs will be highlighted.
Integration of passive electromagnetic structures and particularly integration of antennas on silicon becomes feasible at frequencies above 100GHz due to wavelength-related size reduction. The goal of this workshop is to give inspiration on the various novel circuit techniques relying on conflation of passive and active devices. Furthermore, this workshop discusses potential emerging applications towards THz and presents the latest developments on integrated EM devices and co-design with active circuits at high mm-wave frequencies. We discuss how to realize passive on-chip components, such as transformers, coupler baluns and antennas and how to combine them with the active circuitry. Furhermore, novel techniques involving antennas to realize certain functions are discussed. Antennas can be co-designed synergistically with active circuits to realize novel hybrid antenna-electronics with “on-radiator” and near-field functions, such as power combining/splitting, impedance scaling/filtering, active load modulation, noise cancellation and reconfigurability. A significant research challenge in hybrid active circuit/electromagnetic electronics is the application of suitable multi-physics simulation tools and co-design/co-optimization methodologies. This requires 3D full-physics solutions for electromagnetic simulation. Several world renowned speakers will provide an overview on the techniques, applications and the practical design considerations on realization of these approaches. In this half-day workshop we will discuss emerging techniques for on-chip mm-wave active/passive circuit co-design and applications of these new techniques. Distinguished speakers from leading companies and academia will present a wide range of topics to cover various aspects of EM-circuit co-design. A brief concluding discussion will round-off the workshop to summarize the key learnings of aspects presented during the day.
Engineered surfaces and materials have shown interesting qualities in electromagnetic propagation that may be useful in various applications. Characteristics such as reflection, transmission, and absorption can be designed by control of properties including metal and dielectric geometry, material permittivity or refractive index, and consideration of phenomena such as surface-waves. New or reconsidered electromagnetic design perspectives, newly enabled geometries from additive manufacturing approaches, and new material compositions including flexible or tunable (such as phase-change) materials, present emerging opportunities for investigation. These areas of exploration may yield advances in communication and sensing ranging from microwave to optical frequencies — including potential applications in 5G and 6G technology.
Wireless systems with small RF bandwidths, high-order modulations, and advanced signal-processing techniques have reached a saturation point. They run into spectrum saturation and interference troubles under the sub-6GHz frequency band. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced the opening of 275GHz to 450GHz for super high data-rate communication applications. 5G is becoming a reality worldwide, and 6G is in a championship worldwide. The complete paradigm change of this new generation implies the evolution from today, and one of the elements to be defined will be the revolution in the transceiver functions: The data-rate is targeted beyond 100Gbps, and the carrier frequency to support such data transfer will be in the combination of mm-wave and sub-THz. In the 6G, the mm-wave/sub-THz front-end has challenges on bandwidth, power consumption, antenna coupling, array integration, etc. In this workshop, we also dedicate attention to silicon-based building blocks’ present realizations targeting 5G to 6G evolution.
The continued prevalence of microwave system techniques for interacting with superconducting transmon qubits and spin qubits have driven a resurgence of interest in cryogenic circuit and systems for quantum computing. Moreover, quantum computing applications demand low power, high scalability, and high precision in control signal generation and readout signal processing, which has led to several recent demonstrations of innovative system building blocks, as well as end-to-end control and readout chains. In this workshop, we introduce the state-of-the-art in system architectures for qubit control and readout, and then focus on the recent developments in technologies related to qubit readout. We will examine current building blocks found in high-end systems, then look at the next generation of high performance cryo-LNA technologies. Finally, we conclude with deep dives into full readout chain construction, and test and metrology for this very challenging ecosystem of components.
The RF Power Amplifier (PA) is a performance bottleneck of most RF wireless transmit systems and a critical design component of any RF system. Fundamental PA design knowledge and realization expertise are highly desired and regarded skills in the RF community. With their numerous process technologies, architectures, and implementation “tricks”, the design of RF PAs may quickly become overwhelming. Moreover, the knowledge is typically acquired through years of design experience and multiple failed design attempts. This workshop jump-starts you into the world of PA design by walking you through the various aspects of RF PA design, starting from the basics and then introducing the most popular forms of advanced PA architectures. The various tutorials within the workshop will categorize the different PA design methodologies to give you a better understanding behind their motivations. Experts from industry and academia will also summarize the strengths of various process technologies, enabling you to better select processes depending on your target application. Finally, PA designers with decades of experience will provide insight into successfully implementing RF PAs, including practical design aspects (“tricks of the trade”), accounting for PA memory and thermal effects (the big “gotcha”), and effectively simulating PA designs to closely predict performance. This workshop will provide design insights not obtained from textbook reading, thus benefiting those who are new to the RF PA design field and seasoned warriors who would like a rapid refresher.
Wireless networks have enabled socio-economic growth worldwide and are expected to further advance to foster new applications such as autonomous vehicles, virtual/augmented-reality, and smart cities. Due to limitations of further growth in capacity in the sub-6GHz spectrum, mm-wave and sub-Thz frequencies are gaining an important role in the emerging 6G and the communication-on-the-move applications. In 6G, RF/mm-wave/sub-THz front-ends have challenges on bandwidth, power consumption, antenna coupling, array integration, etc. We examine the integration technologies and packaging challenges. 6G covering from sub-10GHz to high frequency as well the complexity of systems is increasing, which demands implementations in the right technology (CMOS, SiGe, …) and integration of chipsets heterogeneously from basedband, transceiver to the antenna. The heterogeneous integration will be important with the multitude of frequency bands covered, eg 7–14GHz bands up to frequencies >100GHz.
The unique sensing capabilities of mm-wave radars bolstered by modern nano-scale silicon technology and advanced image processing has created the opportunity for integrated radar technology to create substantially improved image perception at a considerably lower size and cost compared to the radars of the 20th century. There is a growing effort in both academia and industry to bring this technology to fruition. In this workshop, we overview the existing opportunities in this field and the challenges that need to be overcome in order to standardize and commercialize integrated radar technology. The workshop brings together a complementary mix of top academic and industry speakers with a breadth of expertise and experience in this field ranging from the fundamental aspects of circuit design, system integration to sensor fusion, product design and testing.
There is no silver bullet power amplifier (PA) design that provides a one-size-fits-all solution for next-gen communication and sensing systems due to the diversity of applications and their associated PA specs (eg output power, linearity, bandwidth, and back-off efficiency). The goal of this workshop is to explore leading mm-wave and sub-THz applications and the associated PA specs for these systems. The applications of focus are massive MIMO and large-scale phased-arrays, sub-orbital satellite communication (SATCOM), and mm-wave radar. A balanced mix of both industry and academic perspectives will be provided, offering both a high-level familiarization of the application and associated specifications, along with deeper technical dives into PA design techniques in modern process nodes.
Interconnect bottlenecks have been a long-standing grand challenge over decades, caused by the increasing gap between exponentially growing data generation and transmission demand, and slowly-increasing supporting data bandwidth supply. Both Electrical Interconnect (EI) and Optical Interconnect (OI) have been investigated extensively to try to combat the challenge, however, both of them face their own inherent constraints. The newly emerging sub-THz/THz Interconnect (TI) aims to complement the existing EI and OI to close the interconnect gap. This workshop plans to bring experts from different domains, OI, EI, and emerging TI, to discuss the challenges, opportunities and best use scenarios of each interconnect scheme.
Owing to superior electrical and thermal properties of GaN-on-SiC material systems, tremendous progress has been made on GaN-based transistor and MMIC technologies. Advanced heterostructure material designs, epitaxial growth techniques, and transistor scaling processes enabled GaN MMICs to extend their applications from microwave to mm-wave frequencies (up to W-band). Next-generation RF systems require high efficiency and high linearity for more complex modulation schemes to support very high data-rates. The traditional trade-off among efficiency, linearity, and power density imposes performance limitations on GaN MMICs, which become more pronounced at mm-wave frequencies. In this workshop, world-leading experts will discuss the present status, challenges, and future perspective of mm-wave GaN transistor and MMIC technologies, covering emerging materials and devices, device modeling, thermal management, reliability, and circuit designs.
Wideband measurement and characterization techniques at microwave and mm-wave frequencies are becoming increasingly demanding to satisfy the specifications of the ever-evolving communications and radar industry. This workshop presents recent research and technology advancements from industry, research centers, and academia, by discussing relevant performance metrics and their experimental evaluation across different hardware platforms. Advanced characterization techniques are presented for transistors, power amplifiers, and beamformers, encompassing over-the-air testing, linearity, load-pull, and calibration of precision radar. The first half of the workshop is dedicated to state-of-the-art wideband device characterization techniques and load-pull. The second half of the workshop is focused on beamformers and over-the-air characterization techniques and standards. Both the morning and afternoon sessions of this workshop will end with open interactive discussions useful to outline future trends and research on these topics.
Advances in materials, fabrication, modeling, and test have enabled devices that achieve new functionality through coupling of multiple physical phenomena. These devices combine piezoelectric, ferroelectric, magnetostatic, acoustoelectric, and other physics to achieve performance beyond that of mass-produced bulk and surface-wave devices. These unique attributes provide potential for significant impact on future RF applications. Interactions between different types of physics provides coupling and exchange of energy between complementary mediums and modes. Examples include integrating piezoelectric and semiconductor materials to couple acoustic and electronic traveling waves, integrating ferromagnetic and piezoelectric materials to couple acoustic and magnetic domains, incorporating ferroelectric materials to change and tune piezoelectric orientation, and strain tuning of magnetostatic waves. Devices using these effects provide the potential for miniature high-Q tunable resonators and filters, non-reciprocal devices, and single-chip analog signal processors. This workshop will provide perspectives on the physics and application potential for these technologies.
Ultra-Low-Power (ULP) wireless communication technology provides many unique features over conventional wireless communication such as high energy efficiency, low cost, small form factor, large scale deployments, reconfigurability and simple architecture. This workshop will bring together experts from academia and industry to highlight recent works and applications in this exciting technology. In the first topic, we are going to review the industry impacts on the most successful and large-scale commercialization using ULP wireless communication technologies such as RFID and Near-Field Communication (NFC). After that, we are going to shift our focus to recent research advances in using RF backscattering techniques in Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface (RIS) and WLAN/BT connectivity solutions. In the last topic of this workshop, we will discuss recent advances from medical, industrial and academic fields in biomedical implants with technologies such as co-optimizing antenna and RFIC to miniaturize radio module volume. Unconventional wireless propagation methods are also introduced, such as body channel communication, Magnetoelectric, ultrasound, etc.
Thanks to the extended body biasing feature, FD-SOI process has enabled new system and circuit design techniques to improve the RF and mmW system performance drastically. Tremendous industry collaboration efforts have committed to bring up the FDSOI to higher volumes of production to serve the wireless, IoT, and automotive market in near future. This workshop includes an overview introductory presentation followed by 4 talks on FDSOI technology and its design examples for RF and mmW applications. The introduction provides the overview on FDSOI technology and its benefits for analog/RF/mmW circuit design, focusing on technology perspective. The following three talks demonstrate RF and mmW system design examples using FDSOI technology, for 5G as well as for ULP IoT. The last talk reveals the advanced FDSOI process design roadmap and what is to expect in near future.
This workshop will cover various recently developed technologies and the state-of-the-art performance in wafer-level integration and packaging technologies and manufacturing techniques with challenges and possible future directions and solutions. In particular, it will highlight the latest advances in the areas such as embedded wafer-level ball grid array (eWLB) technology for system integration with high Q interconnects and passives in thin-film Re-Distribution Layers (RDL), wafer-level heterogeneous integration of different substrates, BiCMOS embedded TSVs, sub-THz on-chip antenna integration, innovative Fan-Out technologies for wafer-level package, RF IPD, and FOSiP, and embedding various chips within the silicon Metal-Embedded Chip/Chiplet Assembly. Further, the workshop will present the practical realization of highly integrated systems, including 60GHz and 77GHz eWLB transceiver modules with integrated antennas, 3D wafer-level packaging for mm-wave and sub-mm-wave space systems, and hetero-integration technology solutions to enable a full 2D array of phased array systems above 120GHz.
RF Power Amplifiers (PAs) play a dominant role in the system performance of wireless transmitters. PA designers are faced with the intractable goal of providing simultaneous high linearity and efficiency, as communications standards adopt ever higher modulation orders and bandwidths. Traditional PA design begins with a non-linear transistor model based on CW measurements. When the PA is measured under the desired modulated signals, degraded performance compared to simulation is commonly observed. Commercial adoption of phased arrays increases the disparity between traditional simulation and realistic measurements; coupling between antenna elements affects the PA performance in ways not accounted for in simulation. This workshop presents the next steps in improving design using modulation characterization to optimize global realistic performance of a system of PAs. The goal is to provide theoretical and practical background that can be applied directly at the lab bench. The workshop includes a practical demonstration using a commercial GaN device.
The evolution of communication technologies in recent years has required more and more performing subsystems and devices. The proposed workshop is focused on the latest solutions devised for the filtering subsystems required in the latest generation of communication systems. Developing these subsystems is challenging, expensive and increases time-to-market for new equipment. The scope of the workshop is to show how a synthesis-based approach may beneficially affect the development of new filters (as an alternative to brute-force optimization of full-wave models). In the first part of the workshop, five presentations show novel synthesis solutions for filters used in modern and future communication systems. In the second part, the goal is to involve interactively the audience showing the synthesis of some previously introduced filters, using an in-house developed software. This interactive moment is conceived to highlight the benefits of a synthesis-based design approach and familiarize attendees with this technique.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) have transformed technologies across all sectors and are offering solutions to many complex problems. In RF design, many AI/ML-based solutions have been proposed. This workshop brings researchers from both academia and industry to discuss how the newly developed AI/ML algorithms can be used in RF Power Amplifier (PA) design and Digital Pre-Distortion (DPD). The topics include using multi-dimensional search algorithms to automate matching network synthesis, post-layout generation using fully automated optimization methods, AI-based signal control technology and deep learning based inverse design in mm-wave PAs. We will also discuss the latest development of DPD algorithms using machine learning, including DPD model simplification, long term memory effect compensation, model extraction data selection, closed-loop adaptation and neural networks based DPD for linearizing multi-band MIMO phased array transmitters.
Availability of high-volume, extremely low-noise transistor VLSI technologies with minimum noise figures as low as 0.2dB (Te, min 14K) at Cellular, WiFi and SATCOM frequencies challenge existing noise metrology practice. State-of-the-art device noise metrology systems are unable to provide system architects and technology developers the ability to clearly discern performance of one device technology over another at these low noise levels. Recent investments by the EU and the US governments in semiconductor manufacturing including RF, microwave and mm-wave applications underscore the need and opportunity for further public-private collaboration in this area. This workshop begins with the motivation for extremely low minimum noise figure technology from applications such as LEO SATCOM and remote sensing, followed by technology developers’ experience with existing metrology practice, culminating with discussions on ways forward from commercial vendors and NIST.
This workshop will provide a comprehensive overview of the latest results on sensing, monitoring and characterization capability of RF/microwave-based devices operating from 30MHz to 300GHz. Microwave-based sensors have demonstrated great potential for non-destructive and non-ionizing monitoring of physical parameters and characterization of materials in liquid and solid phases. The main advances and results in this multi-disciplinary field, involving chemistry, material science and microwave engineering, will be illustrated. Microwave resonator sensors, RFID sensors, and antenna-based sensors for non-destructive, non-ionizing and contactless sensing and characterization applications will be covered, to provide the audience with an in-depth understanding of the subject, and of the potential synergies among different approaches.
Microwaves have a vital role to play in a diverse collection of emerging application areas far beyond wireless communications and conventional microelectronics, spanning from quantum computing to energy storage to medical diagnostics. To unlock these potential applications, reliable microwave measurements are critical. Quantitative, functional data is required at each step of development to transform conceptual designs into fully engineered, validated, and optimized products. While microwave measurement techniques are generally well-established, new applications that are emerging today present new measurement challenges. This workshop will explore the current state-of-the-art in microwave metrology techniques that are extended to new and novel measurement environments and scenarios. The event will bring together researchers from across academia, industry, and government laboratories who work in varied application spaces. While these emerging applications may appear disparate, convening experts for detailed discussions of their microwave measurement challenges may uncover previously unseen connections and commonalities.
In recent years significant advances have been made in quantum computing, quantum sensing, and quantum communications. Circuit quantum electrodynamical models provide tools for modeling quantum devices. Superconducting electronics exhibit special quantum properties and, when monolithically integrated, extend the possibilities for integrated microwave circuits and devices, deeply rooted in microwave engineering, to a quantum level. For RF microwave engineers, this signifies an extension and transfer of microwave engineering concepts to the quantum realm. Using quantum circuit electrodynamics, key devices in microwave quantum engineering can be modeled. On the other hand, within quantum computing (QC), new quantum-based algorithms can harness problem-solving also in electromagnetics. In recent years, the remarkable progress made in QC hardware has defined a new, Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ), QC era. By exploiting fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, these QC systems have the potential to deliver significant speedup against classical computing hardware for solving hard electromagnetic problems.
Reflectarrays, invented in the 1980s, have been predominantly used for satellite communications, high-speed imaging systems at 24GHz (airport security systems) and for mm-wave radars. Recently, they have been proposed as programmable reflect surfaces for 5G communication systems, and renamed as “Intelligent Reflect Surfaces” or IRS. This workshop presents the previous work in this area, and the new work being done from 24GHz to 300GHz. Some of the new work is geared towards large reflect surfaces for 5G/6G, some towards THz imaging systems, and some towards space applications. What is important is that with new low-loss silicon technologies and the high level of integration offered by silicon, one can now demonstrate large, low-power, low-loss reflect surfaces. The new reflectarrays are expanding this classic steerable antenna technology to a wide range of application areas spanning 5G, 6G, FMCW radars and THz systems.
The complexity of the requirements in advanced 5G and forthcoming scenarios has a direct impact in the design of acoustic wave filters. Latest developments have pushed acoustic technology to an unprecedented situation that requires facing the incoming challenges from different perspectives. Taking this into account, the workshop aims to present the latest developments related to synthesis methodologies, linear and non-linear modeling, reconfigurability, and new orthogonal markets that may consider the use of acoustic wave resonators. The affiliation of the presenters will give the talks a more industrial focus, but also with an academic approach which may contribute to a more enriching discussion.
This workshop will address a timely subject of low-phase-noise and high-stability microwave oscillators that are key building blocks of virtually any RF/microwave system. State-of-the-art low-noise and high-stability microwave oscillators are particularly important in high-speed telecommunications, wireless spectrum management and high-resolution imaging systems. Overall performance of most microwave subsystems depends on, and is often limited by, phase noise fluctuations in oscillators. In respect to phase noise and stability performance, designers primarily rely on ovenized crystal oscillators. However, recent advances in using other physical principles and materials are expected to enable oscillators with performance never imagined before. Various oscillator types, techniques, new materials along with their main characteristics will be reviewed.
Active array antennas have become mature technology in communication and radar applications. The spatial radiation characteristics are typically measured “over the air” using anechoic chambers and positioning gear to perform far- or near-field measurements. These approaches have long been used by engineers to characterize classic, passive antennas while measurements of RF front-ends and baseband circuitry could be performed conductively, bypassing the antenna. As frequencies continue to increase to sub-THz, designers need to integrate antennas with beamforming chips, making a separate characterization of antennas and RF chips impossible. Additionally, the classical methods do not scale well to test the high volumes that will come with active antennas becoming more ubiquitous. The classical methods are slow, large and mechanically challenging, all driving up the test cost significantly. This workshop highlights key advances in alternative multi-probe testers, near-field sockets, and quantum-sensing probes to overcome these limitations.
Applications of microwave power span an increasing number of research and industrial sectors. They include the widely known microwave heating, cooking, sterilization, vulcanization, etc. Microwave sintering of particulate materials, microwave plasma generation, microwave acceleration of chemical reactions for applications such as waste treatment are among the new disciplines showing the potential for new efficient technologies. Additionally, traditional S-band magnetron high-power sources are being challenged by semiconductor technologies that have some advantages, but are still more costly. The workshop has speakers from industry who will compare existing technologies, discuss the most recent applications, and multiphysics tools used to address them. One academic talk will discuss the main fundamental challenges on a few examples such as pyrolysis of mixed waste.
There have been significant advances in the application of quantum technologies with several examples demonstrating the feasibility of what a few decades ago were only theories. However, key challenges still remain as a barrier to fully realizing the advantages brought by quantum technologies. One of the main challenges to overcome is scaling up quantum systems by several orders of magnitude. For instance, as the leading approach in quantum computing relies on superconductors and microwave signal processing, exploring options in packaging and interconnects for superconducting applications in the 4K and mK range is necessary. This workshop offers the opportunity to hear from multiple speakers that are actively working in the areas of microwave packaging and interconnects for superconducting application to face the challenges ahead.
With the development of high performance semiconductor nodes and emergence of 5G and 6G systems, significant advances have been achieved in electronically scannable mm-wave phased arrays. The continued performance improvements of advanced node CMOS and scaled SiGe HBTs, have enabled the development of highly integrated mm-wave phased arrays for low cost, small size and low dissipation applications. As a result, we have made great advances in RF front-ends, antenna arrays and high-speed analog-to-digital converters. On the other hand, the recent development of THz III-V HEMTs have enabled phased arrays at previously inaccessible frequencies. This workshop will discuss some of the highlights of major advances in mm-wave phased arrays in 4 invited talks by industry and academic leaders. The range of these topics will show how the varying application spaces impose requirements which flow down through the system architecture and component designs to the semiconductor technologies.
The large available spectrum at mm-wave frequencies above 100GHz offers wideband channels with tens of GHz wide bandwidth. This enables the development of wireless and waveguide communication systems with unprecedented data capacity. The small carrier wavelength (λ) permits compact arrays with many antennas. This paves the path for compact radio imaging systems with very high resolution. The goal of this workshop is to review the most recent advances in wireless, waveguide, and radar systems at D-band and beyond. Selected experts from academia and industry will discuss end-to-end components and challenges associated with novel mm-wave massive MIMO arrays, large scale phased arrays, high data-rate waveguide systems for data centers, and radar and sensing systems with very high resolution above 100GHz. Topics addressed will include semiconductor technology, mm-wave wireless transceivers, antenna arrays, waveguide channels and fully packaged modules.
In the past few years, the COVID19 pandemic has drawn attention to health. Radio-frequency and mm-wave radar has been regarded as an emerging technique for contactless monitoring of health conditions, particularly the health of the subject’s respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Radar has evolved from a complex, high-end technology into a relatively simple, low-cost solution penetrating industrial, automotive and consumer market segments. The adoption of short-range radars for consumer applications requires reliable system performance at small form factor, low-power and low-cost. The advancement of silicon and packaging technology has led to small form factor such that they can be mounted on devices, aesthetically concealed without affecting the system performance. This workshop covers multiple aspects of how to leverage short-range radar sensing for biomedical applications, including the metamaterial bio-radar, the clinic evaluations, gait analysis, monitoring impaired people, system design principles, and MIMO bio-radars.